In 1990, Linus Torvalds, a graduate student from University of Helsinki designed a UNIX like kernel on 386 Intel machine and gave this to Open Source Foundation (OSF).

  • Features of Linux
  • Open Source
  • Free software along with the source code and documentation.
  • Multitasking
  • Capable of running multiple applications and process at the same time.
  • Multi-user Portability
  • Can be installed on all hardware architecture.
  • Salability
  • Same operating system can be used on a desktop to a super computer.
  • Reliability
  • Large servers have been successfully being running without a single second of down time.
  • Security
  • Inbuilt firewall (lptables) and SELinux.

Linux File System Hierarchy Standard (FHS)


  • This directory is called as the ‘root’ directory.
  • It is at the top of the the file system structure.
  • All other directories are placed under it.
  • This is the default home directory of the root.
  • Note : In Linux / Unix the administrator is called as root.
  • It contains the home directories of all users (similar to ‘Documents and Setting’ folder in Windows).
  • When any user logs in the current working directory by default is the user home directory.
  • Sbin stands for system binary.
  • It contains essential system commands which can only be used by the superuser (root).
  • Example : fdisk, dump, etc.
  • It contains the kernel, which is the core of the operating system.
  • It also contains the files related for booting the OS such as the Boot Loader.
  • Bin stands for binary
  • It contains essential commands which are used by all users.
  • Example : ping, cat , chmod, etc.
  • Usr stands for unix system resources.
  • It contains the programs and applications which are available for users (similar to program files in Windows).
  • Var stands for variable
  • It contains variable information, such as logs and print queues.
  • Dev stands for device.
  • It contains information about all hardware devices.
  • Etc stands for etcetera
  • Contains all the configuration files.
  • Opt stands for optional.
  • It generally contains the third party software’s.
  • Example : Open Office, Kaspersky Antivirus etc.
  • It is the default mount point for removable storage media such as cdrom/dvd and pendrives, etc.

That’s all for now.

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