History of Linux
In 1990, Linus Torvalds, a graduate student from University of Helsinky designed a UNIX like darnel on 386 Intel machine and gave this to Open Source Foundation (OSF).
- Features of Linux
- Open Source
- Free software along with the source code and documentation.
- Capable of running multiple applications and process at the same time.
- Multi-user Portability
- Can be installed on all hardware architecture.
- Same operating system canbe used on a desktop to a super computer.
- Large servers have been successfully being running without a single second of down time.
- Inbuilt firewall (liptables) and SELinux.
Linux File System Hierarchy Standard (FHS)
- This directory is called as the ‘root’ directory.
- It is at the top of the the file system structure.
- All other directories are placed under it.
- This is the default home directory of the root.
- Note : In Linux / Unix the administrator is called as root.
- It contains the home directories of all users (similar to ‘Documents and Setting’ folder in Windows).
- When any user logs in the current working directory by default is the user home directory.
- Sbin stands for system binary.
- It contains essential system commands which can only be used by the superuser (root).
- Example : fdisk, dump, etc.
- It contains the kernel, which is the core of the operating system.
- It also contains the files related for booting the OS such as the Boot Loader.
- Bin stands for binary
- It contains essential commands which are used by all users.
- Example : ping, cat , chmod, etc.
- Usr stands for unix system resources.
- It contains the programs and applications which are available for users (similar to program files in Windows).
- Var stands for variable
- It contains variable information, such as logs and print queues.
- Dev stands for device.
- It contains information about all hardware devices.
- Etc stands for etcetera
- Contains all the configuration files.
- Opt stands for optional.
- It generally contains the third party software’s.
- Example : Open Office, Kaspersky Antivirus etc.
- It is the default mount point for removable storage media such as cdrom/dvd and pendrives, etc.