The SSH plays most important role when perform any remote login to any Linux server. That’s why it is the first targeted method by any hacker to compromise a Linux server. First step that is performed by any sysadmins or Devops engineer is to harden SSH to secure it from external attacks and hackers. This tutorial explains you how to secure Linux SSH servers using SSH Hardening Tips.
Tip 1 : Enable Firewall To Protect the SSH Ports.
First of all You need to integrate the firewall to protect your SSH Port using UFW firewall and Firewalld firewall.
Tip 2 : Enable SSH Key based authentication instead of password based authentication.
Secondly you need to enable the key based SSH authentication to protect your SSH servers.
Tip 3 : Harden your sshd configuration file.
Then Edit your SSH configuration file.
# vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config
After that Find the given lines
PermitRootLogin yes PasswordAuthentication yes AllowTcpForwarding YES ClientAliveCountMax 3 Compression DELAYED LogLevel INFO MaxAuthTries 6 MaxSessions 10 Port 22 TCPKeepAlive YES UsePrivilegeSeparation YES X11Forwarding YES AllowAgentForwarding YES
As soon as Change it to
PermitRootLogin no PasswordAuthentication no AllowTcpForwarding NO ClientAliveCountMax 2 Compression NO LogLevel VERBOSE MaxAuthTries 2 MaxSessions 2 Port 3526 TCPKeepAlive NO UsePrivilegeSeparation SANDBOX X11Forwarding NO AllowAgentForwarding NO
Finally Restart the SSH services to apply the changes.
# systemctl restart sshd
Tip 4 : Integrate Advanced Diffie-Hellman Key based algorithm to secure SSH.
Firstly Integrate Advanced Diffie-Hellman key based algorithm to enhance the security of SSH server.
Tip 5 : Limit SSH Brute-force attack using Fail2ban.
Secondly Limit SSH Brute-force attack using Fail2ban.
Install Fail2ban on Ubuntu / Debian based distribution,
# apt install fail2ban -y
Install Fail2ban on Alma / Rocky / Amazon Linux based distribution.
Note: you need to install EPEL repository first before proceeding to the given steps.
# yum install fail2ban -y
Enable the fail2ban on Linux distribution.
# cp -rv /etc/fail2ban/jail.conf /etc/fail2ban/jail.local
Start the fail2ban services to apply the changes.
# systemctl start fail2ban
Congratulations now you have harden and secure the SSH on Ubuntu and Alma / Rocky / Amazon Linux.